кошки: if only

Кошки дирӯз ҳамин хел мешуд.
If only yesterday had been like this.
Кошки ин сухан аз даҳонаш намебаромад!
If only those words hadn’t come out of his mouth!
Кошки медонистам.
I wish I had known.

Кошки could also be translated as “I wish…” or “O that…”
Кошки can also be a response to something that sounds too good to be true. For example, somebody says that they have heard that there will be no snow this winter. You reply – “Кошки”, “If only”.


кӯҳсор: mountains

Дар кӯҳсор ҳайвоноти ваҳшӣ: гург, рӯбоҳ, хирс ва бабрҳо мешаванд.
In the mountains are wild animals: wolves, foxes, bears and tigers.
Мо имрӯз ба сайри кӯҳсор меравем.
Today we are going for a walk in the mountains.

Adding the suffix -зор, -сор, -истон to a noun forms a noun for a place. Кӯҳ is mountain, so кӯҳсор is “the place of mountains” which could also be translated as “mountainous region”, “highlands”, or simply “mountains”.
Кӯҳистон is a synonym for кӯҳсор. It would be interesting to find out if they have slightly different meanings or if they are completely interchangeable.

ҷустуҷӯ кардан

ҷустуҷӯ кардан: to search

Чаро шумо зиндаро дар миёни мурдагон ҷустуҷӯ мекунед?
Why do you search for the living among the dead.

Tajik websites like Asia-Plus use the word ҷустуҷӯ in the search box to search their site.
Another common usage of the word ҷустуҷӯ is in оперативӣ – ҷустуҷӯӣ, or search operation, as in a search that might be conducted by the Department of Customs.


ситора: star

Осмон пур аз ситора аст.
The sky is full of stars.
Офтоб яке аз миллиардҳо ситораҳое, ки галактикаи Роҳи Каҳкашонро ташкил медиҳад.
The sun is one of the billions of stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy.

The word “ситора” can also be used for someone famous, as in a music star or a film star.
The Tajik word for “astronomer” is “ситорашинос”, or one who knows the stars. Likewise, “astronomy” is “ситорашиносӣ”, or knowing the stars.


сафед: white

Ранги сафед аз бисёр рангҳо иборат аст – зард, норинчӣ, сурх, сабз, кабуд ва гулобӣ.
White is composed of many colours – yellow, orange, red, green, blue and purple.
Роҳи сафед!
Safe journey! (Literally – white road)

Do you know what тиллои сафед is? You can use google image search to find out.
There is a cool way to say “very white” in Tajik – сап-сафед. There are also cool ways to say “very blue”, “very red” etc.
If you need practice with colours you can learn them here: Memrise – Tajik Colours


иборат: consists

Оилаи мо аз панҷ нафар иборат аст.
Our family consists of five people.
Як сол иборат аз дувоздаҳ моҳ аст.
One year consists of twelve months.

This is a good example of a word that is hard to translate. Sometimes it translates better as “contains” or “is made up of”. To get a good handle of this word you should create more sentences using the sample sentences as guides. Don’t try to translate the sentences into English; just try to get the feel for how to use the word in Tajik. Here is another example:
Табиатшиносӣ аз ду калима (“табиат” ва “шинос”) иборат аст.


пӯлод: steel

Милтиқу тӯп аз пӯлод сохта мешаванд.
Guns and cannons are made from steel.
Корду қайчӣ низ аз пӯлод сохта мешаванд.
Knives and scissors are also made from steel.

If you want to ask what something is made from you can do it like this:
Корду қайчӣ аз чӣ сохта мешавад?
What are knives and scissors made from?


порсол: last year

Ин китобро ман порсол харида будам.
I bought this book last year.
Порсол дар Тоҷикистон беш аз 1200 тонна пилла истеҳсол шуда буд.
Last year in Tajikistan more than 1200 tons of silk cocoons were produced.

Try to use the word “порсол” five times today in your conversations.
Find out how to say “two years ago” or “the year before last”.


гузаранда: contagious, infectious

Илми тиб касалиҳоро ба ду навъ ҷудо мекунад: касалиҳои гузаранда ва касалиҳои нагузаранда.
Medical science divides illnesses into two types: infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases.

Ask a friend to give you examples of infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases.
In English we can describe other things as being contagious, for example, laughter. In Tajik, can something other than a disease be contagious?