гусел кардан

гусел кардан: to see off, to send off

Писару модар боборо гусел карданд.
The son and mother saw grandfather off.
Чун вақти мо ба охир расид, боз ба роҳ даромадем, ва ҳама бо занону бачаҳошон моро то беруни шаҳр гусел карданд.
When our time came to an end, we set off on the road again, and everyone with their wives and children saw us off to the outside of the city.

Bonus:
Synonyms: гуселонидан, хайрухуш кардан

гуселкунанда: the person who sees somebody off

In Tajik culture it is very important to see your guests off properly. When visiting somebody who lives in a house with a yard, the host family will accompany the guests to the gate to say goodbye there. If the guests have arrived by car the host family will usually go out to the car with them. If the guests have walked, then somebody from the host family might walk half way home with them. When a friend or family member leaves on an airplane it would not be unusual for many friends and family members to come to the airport to see them off.

машғул шудан

машғул шудан: to be busy, to be occupied

Ҳама ба ошхӯрӣ машғул шуданд.
Everyone has become occupied with eating their meal.
Саҳарӣ барвақт хеста, ба тарбияи бадан машғул мешавад.
Early in the morning he gets up and gets busy with his exercises.

Bonus:
Synonym: саргарм шудан

Ош has two meanings. It can mean a meal, or it can mean the Tajik version of pilau.

нигоҳ доштан

нигоҳ доштан: to keep, to look after

Шир ва маҳсулоти шириро дар яхдон нигоҳ медоранд.
Milk and dairy products are kept in the fridge.
Дар нигоҳ доштани саломатӣ дуруст хӯрок хӯрдан муҳим аст.
Eating right is important for looking after your health.

Bonus:
гов (мурғ) нигоҳ доштан: to keep/raise cows (chickens)
нигоҳдор: keeper, protector, guard

In Tajik it is less common to use the passive voice and more common to use the third person plural, as in the first sentence. You could also translate it “They keep milk and dairy products in the fridge”.

чиндан

чиндан: to pick, to gather

Имрӯз лола мечинем.
Today we will pick tulips.
Ҳар дарахт аз мевааш шинохта мешавад; зеро аз хорҳо анҷир намегиранд, ва аз хорбутта ангур намечинанд.
Every tree will be recognized by its fruit; for figs are not gathered from thorns, and grapes are not picked from thorn bushes.

Bonus:
Alternate spelling: чидан

пахта чиндан: to pick cotton
гул чиндан: to pick flowers
пахтачин: cotton picker
гулчин: flower picker
пахтачинӣ: cotton picking
гулчинӣ: flower picking

гӯш додан

гӯш додан: to listen

Шумо ба гапи падару модаратон гӯш диҳед.
Listen to your father and mother.
Дарбон дарро барои чӯпон мекушояд, гӯсфандон ба овози вай гӯш медиҳанд.
The gatekeeper opens the door for the shepherd, and the sheep listen to his voice.

Bonus:
Synonyms: гӯш кардан, гӯш андохтан

гӯш: ear
додан: to give

гӯшдиҳанда: listener, hearer

The helper verb додан is seen quite a lot. Here are some more examples:
салом додан: to greet
ном додан: to name
бой додан: to lose
ваъда додан: to promise
нишон додан: to show
озор додан: to harm
тавсия додан: to recommend
хабар додан: to inform, to tell

When you have a verb that uses додан you can often form a compound word using the noun part of the verb with диҳанда to form a noun that is a person, for example бойдиҳанда (loser), хабардиҳанда (informer).

гап задан

гап задан: to talk, to speak

Бобоям баланд-баланд гап мезад.
My grandfather would talk very loudly.
Рӯзи дароз падару духтар аз ину аз он гап зада нишастанд.
All day long the father and daughter sat and talked about this and that.

Bonus:
Synonyms: ҳарф задан, сухан гуфтан

гапи сахт задан: to speak harshly

In Tajik a word can be repeated to mean “very”.
баланд-баланд: very loudly
оҳиста-оҳиста: very slowly
калон-калон: very big
майда-майда: very small

гуфтан

гуфтан: to say, to tell

Намедонам ва намефаҳмам, ки ту чӣ мегӯӣ.
I don’t know and I don’t understand what you are saying.
Ба муаллим гӯед, ки ман омада наметавонам.
Tell the teacher that I can’t come.
Ман чизе гуфтанӣ будам.
I wanted to say something. I was going to say something.

Bonus:
гуфтугӯ(й): conversation, discussion
шеър гуфтан: to recite a poem
рост гуфтан: to speak truth (as in “Рост мегӯед.” You speak truth. You’re right.)
зери лаб гуфтан: to whisper, to say quietly

нишон додан

нишон додан: to show

Вай китоби худро ба ман нишон дод.
He showed me his book.
Вай ба шумо болохонаи калонеро нишон медиҳад.
He will show you a large upper room.

Bonus:
худро нишон додан: to show oneself (demonstrate one’s ability)
мӯъҷиза нишон додан: to show a miracle
аниқ нишон додан: to show exactly; to show clearly
муқобилият нишон додан: to show resistance; to resist
лутфу марҳамат нишон додан: to show kindness and mercy
ба касе роҳ нишон додан: to show someone the way
қувваи худро нишон додан: to show one’s strength
рафтори бад нишон додан: to show bad behaviour

сохтан

сохтан: to build

Парандагони осмон дар шохаҳои дарахт лона сохтанд.
The birds of the air built nests in the branches of the tree.
Ҷойгаҳро аз чӯбу оҳан месозанд.
They make beds from wood and iron.

Bonus:
The second sentence can also be translated “Beds are made from wood and iron”.

аз нав сохтан: to rebuild

The present stem of сохтан (соз) can be combined with nouns to make compound words –
соатсоз: watch builder, watchmaker
роҳсоз: road builder