китф

китф: shoulder

Мӯи сараш то сари китф дароз буд.
Her hair was to the top of her shoulders in length.
Пеш аз сароидан китфҳоро боло набардошта, оромона нафас гиред.
Before singing breath softly without raising your shoulders.

Bonus:
Often this word is pronounced and even written as кифт. The two consonants are switched because it is easier to pronounce that way. Another example of this is қуфл (lock) which is more commonly prounounced as қулф.
To review body parts you can use Memrise, an online site for learning lists of words. Memrise: Tajik Human Body

уқёнус

уқёнус: ocean

Шӯрии оби уқёнус дар ҳама ҷо як хел нест.
The saltiness of ocean water is not the same in every place.
Қариб понздаҳ фоизи масоҳати уқёнус яхпӯш мешавад.
About fifteen percent of the area of the ocean is covered with ice.

Bonus:
Уқёнуси Ором: Pacific Ocean
Уқёнуси Атлантик: Atlantic Ocean
Уқёнуси Ҳинд: Indian Ocean
Уқёнуси Яхбастаи Шимолӣ: Arctic Ocean
қаторкӯҳҳои зериуқёнусӣ: undersea mountain ranges

шаршара

шаршара: waterfall

Дар соли 2014 аз сардии ҳаво шаршараи Ниагара ях баст.
In the year 2014 the Niagara Falls waterfall froze from the cold weather.
Дар Тоҷикистон шаршараи аз ҳама баланд дар саргаҳи Искандардарё воқеъ гардидааст.
In Tajikistan the highest waterfall is located at the beginning of the Iskandar River.

Bonus:
Synonym: обшор
Tajik Wikipedia has a very short and easy to read paragraph about the Iskandar River which flows from Iskanderkul (Lake Alexander): Искандардарё

фаҳмондан

фаҳмондан: to explain

Ман инро ба ту мефаҳмонам.
I will explain this to you.
Ба хона баргашта ба бародару апаам ҳодисаро фаҳмондам.
I went back home and explained the event to my brother and sister.

Bonus:
Here is a joke using today’s word – a grandfather explains to his grandson why he and his wife never argue.

Some Tajik verbs can be made into causative verbs by inserting он in the verb; sometimes a letter is also omitted. Examples –
фаҳмидан: to understand
фаҳмондан: to explain (to make someone understand)
хӯрдан: to eat
хӯрондан: to feed (someone else)
кӯчидан: to move
кӯчондан: to make someone move, to evict
пӯшидан: to put on (an item of clothing)
пӯшондан: to dress (someone else)
тарсидан: to be scared
тарсондан: to scare (someone else)

моҳӣ

моҳӣ: fish

Мо танҳо панҷ нон ва ду моҳӣ дорем.
We only have five bread and two fish.
“Ин моҳӣ аз қаиқи ман дарозтар будааст”, гуфт пирамард.
“This fish was longer than my boat”, said the old man.

Bonus:
моҳигир: fisherman
моҳигирӣ: fishing
моҳипарвар: fish farmer
моҳипарварӣ: fish farming
Notice that when you add a suffix to a word ending with ӣ, it is changed to и. You can’t have ӣ in the middle of a word.

ғор

ғор: cave

Рӯбоҳон ғорҳо ва парандагони осмон лонаҳо доранд.
Foxes have caves and birds of the air have nests.
Аз даруни ғор ба гӯшаш як ғулғулаи пурдаҳшат расид.
From inside the cave he heard a terrifying rumbling. (From inside the cave a terrifying rumbling reached his ear.)

Bonus:
ғорнишин: cave-dweller
Here is an interesting story about a cave high in the Aini district with a mummified body that people go to visit. The video on the page is not too difficult to understand. Ҷасади дар ғор

фақат

фақат: only

Дар ноҳияи мо фақат як бозор аст.
In our district there is only one bazaar.
Ҳама дар маҷлис буданд, фақат ту набудӣ.
Everyone was in the meeting; only you weren’t there.

Bonus:
Synonym: танҳо
на фақат: not only
Example – На фақат гӯшт, нон ҳам надорем. Not only meat, we also don’t have bread.

биҳӣ

биҳӣ: quince

Аз меваҳо биҳӣ хеле дер гул мекунад ва дер мепазад.
Among the fruits quince blooms late and ripens late.
Биҳӣ қариб дар ҳама ноҳияҳои Тоҷикистон парвариш меёбад.
Quince is grown in almost all of the districts of Tajikistan.

Bonus:
Quince is also called себи биҳӣ.
You can read more about quince on Tajik wikipedia: биҳӣ.
To make this word an adjective, add the suffix гӣ.
мураббои биҳигӣ: quince preserves (jam)

бешубҳа

бешубҳа: doubtless, without a doubt

Вай, бешубҳа, одами диловар аст.
He is, without a doubt, a brave person.
Бешубҳа қаҳва барои одамоне, ки фишори баланди хун доранд, зараровар аст.
Without a doubt, coffee is harmful for people who have high blood pressure.

Bonus:
Synonyms: бешак, албатта
шубҳа: doubt

сол

сол: year

То охири сол ҳаштод рӯз мемонад.
Eighty days remain until the end of the year.
Шоир соли 1913 дар шахри Кобул ба дунё омад.
The poet was born in the year 1913 in the city of Kabul.

Bonus:
Ба дунё омадан means “to come into the world” and is often used instead of таваллуд шудан, “to be born”.
порсол: last year
соли кабиса: leap year
соли ҷорӣ: current year
You can learn or review words to do with months, years and seasons here – Memrise: Tajik Months and Seasons.