нӯл

нӯл: beak

Бумҳо нӯли қатшуда ва чанголҳои тез доранд.
Owls have curved beaks and sharp claws.
Шакл ва андозаи нӯлҳои парандагон гуногун мешавад ва ба тарзи хӯрокхӯрии онҳо вобаста мебошад
The shape and size of birds’ beaks are varied and related to the way they eat their food.

Bonus:
нӯлборик: thin-beaked
нӯлдароз: long-beaked
нӯлдор: beaked, having a beak
нӯл задан: to peck

каждум

каждум: scorpion

Дар дунё панҷсад намуди каждум маълум буда, даҳ намуди он дар Тоҷикистон вомехӯрад.
There are five hundred kinds of scorpions in the world, and ten of those are found in Tajikistan.
Ва кист аз шумо, ки падар бошад, ва писараш аз ӯ моҳие хоҳиш кунад, ва ӯ ба ҷои моҳӣ море ба вай медиҳад? Ё, агар тухме хоҳиш кунад, каждуме ба вай медиҳад?
Who among you, who is a father, and his son asks for a fish will give him a snake instead of a fish? Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion?

Bonus:
Learn more animal and creature words at Memrise Decks: Tajik Animals

Here is a short Tajik cartoon on You Tube about a tortoise and a scorpion: Сангпушт ва каждум

гулбарг

гулбарг: petal

Ранги гулбаргҳои кӯкнор бунафш, гулобӣ, сурх ва сафед мешавад.
Poppy petals are purple, pink, red or white.
Гули дарахти биҳӣ калон буда, ранги гулбаргҳояш сафед ё гулобии хушбӯй мебошад.
The flowers of a quince tree are large, and its sweet-smelling petals are white or pink.

Bonus:
In Tajik, when talking about colours, the word ранг (colour) is almost always used, ранги кабуд instead of кабуд, for example. If we translate these two sentences word for word into English it will sound unnatural, for example, “The colour of poppy petals is purple, pink, red and white.”

You can find a few more sentences about flowers here: Word of the day, tag: flowers.

You can learn some flower names at Memrise Decks: Tajik Flowers.

халтадор

халтадор: marsupial

Ширхӯрон ба се зерсинф ҷудо шуда буданд: тухмзойҳо, халтадорон ва ҳамроҳакдорон.
Mammals have been separated into three subclasses: egg-layers, marsupials and placental mammals.
Дар Австралия бисёр намуди ҳайвонот ҳаст, ки дар дигар ҷо нестанд, масалан, аз халтадоран – кенгуру, хирси коала, вомбатҳо.
In Australia there are many kinds of animals that are not found in other places, for example, from marsupials – kangaroos, koala bears and wombats.

Bonus:
халта: sack, pouch
дор: stem from доштан, to have
халтадор: having a pouch or sack, pouched
ширхӯрони халтадор: pouched mammals, marsupials

ҳамроҳак: placenta
ҳамроҳакдор: placental, having a placenta

The suffix дор is common in Tajik. Here are some more examples –
думдор: having a tail, tailed
мӯҳрадор: having a backbone, vertebrate
шохдор: having horns, horned
пашмдор: having fur, furry
чанголор: having talons or claws, clawed
болдор: having wings, winged

ба хоби зимистона рафтан

ба хоби зимистона рафтан: to hibernate

Ҳангоми саршавии фасли тирамоҳ хазандаҳо дар ковокиҳо ё ғорҳо ҷамъ шуда ба хоби зимистона мераванд.
At the beginning of autumn reptiles gather together in holes or caves and hibernate.
Чандин ҷонварони хунгарм, мисоли хирс, хорпушт, санҷобҳои заминӣ баробари фарорасии зимистон ба хоби зимистона мераванд.
Several warmblooded creatures, for example, bears, porcupines and ground squirrels hibernate with the approach of winter.

Bonus:
To see sentences where hibernation is used as a noun you can read this post –
хоби зимистона: hibernation (noun)

The suffix -а is added to the word зимистон (winter) because the word winter is functioning as an adjective.

аз хоби зимистона хестан: to wake up from hibernation

Some animals, like tortoises and salamanders, also sleep in the summer to avoid the hot weather.
хоби тобистона: estivation, aestivation
ба хоби тобистона рафтан: to estivate, to aestivate

сутунмӯҳрадор

сутунмӯҳрадор: vertebrate

Аксарияти сутунмуҳрадорон болҳо ва пойҳои ҷуфт доранд.
Most vertebrates have pairs of wings and legs.
Ширхӯрон ба монанди дигар сутунмуҳрадорон системаи асаб доранд.
Mammals, like other vertebrates, have a nervous system.

Bonus:
бесутунмӯҳра: invertebrates
сутунмӯҳра: spine

The suffix дор is from the verb доштан, to have. It is a very common suffix. Here are a few more examples:
остиндор: with sleeves, having sleeves
болдор: winged, with wings
бачадор: having a child/children
пулдор: wealthy, having money
таҷрибадор: experienced, having experience
чахрдор: wheeled, having wheels
хордор: thorny, having thorns

ҷигар

ҷигар: liver

Ҷигар ба системаи ҳозима дохил мешавад.
The liver is included in the digestive system.
Ҷигари гӯсфанд ё говро хуб тоза карда, калон-калон мебуранд.
The liver of sheep or cow is cleaned well, and cut into big pieces.

Bonus:
In Tajik the third person plural is often used in recipes, as the second sentence shows. If you want to translate it as written it would be “They clean the liver of sheep or cow well, and cut it into big pieces.”

ҷигарӣ, ҷигарранг: liver-coloured; maroon
ҷигарбирён: fried liver

This word is also used as an affectionate term for children or other close family and loved ones, as in “ҷигари ман”, “ҷону ҷигари ман”.

калтакалос

калтакалос: lizard

Дар Тоҷикистон 33 намуди калтакалос дучор мешаванд.
In Tajikistan one can find 33 kinds of lizards.
Аз дуди офтобпараст муш ва калтакалосҳо мегурезанд.
Mice and lizards run away from the smoke of sunflowers.

Bonus:
Also called келас.

The first sentence is written in 3rd person plural, but the English translation is better in 3rd person singular.

Notice that in the second sentence the word for mice does not have the plural ending, ҳо. That is because when listing items the plural ending only has to go on the last item in the list; putting it on the other items is optional, but usually left off. It is understood from context that both words are plural.

You can read about lizards on Tajik Wikipedia: Калтакалос

косахонаи сар

косахонаи сар: skull

Косахонаи сар зиёда аз бист устухонро дар бар мегирад.
The skull consists of more than twenty bones.
Дар аксарияти хазандаҳо скелет ба қисмҳои косахонаи сар, мӯҳраҳо, пойҳои пешу қафо ва дум тақсим мешавад.
In the majority of reptiles the skeleton is divided into the sections of skull, vertebrae, front and back legs, and tail.

Bonus:
Other uses of косахона –
косахонаи чашм: eye socket
косахонаи сангпушт: tortoise shell

You can learn more body part words by reading about nature. The second sentence for today comes from an article about reptiles on an educational website – Хазандаҳо (Reptiles)

хазанда

хазанда: reptile

Дар рӯйи Замин зиёда аз 7 ҳазор намуди гуногуни хазандаҳо зиндагӣ мекунанд.
More than seven thousand various kinds reptiles live on the face of the earth.
Ғайр аз морҳо ва калтакалоси бепой (баҳтур) ҳамаи намудҳои дигари хазандаҳо дар ду паҳлуи танаашон як ҷуфтӣ пой доранд.
Besides snakes and legless lizards, all other different kinds of reptiles have a pair of feet on both sides of their body.

Bonus:
The sentences for today came from allinweb website – Синфи хазандаҳо. The article has loads of great reading about reptiles along with good pictures of reptiles including body parts and bones. There are lots of other great educational articles on that website too.

The plural of ҳазанда can be ҳазандаҳо or ҳазандагон. The suffix -он is used for animate nouns; when the noun ends with the letter “a” the ending is -гон.

Баҳтур (or боҳтур) is a kind of legless lizard that lives in Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia. You can read about them here: Боҳтур.