хирси сафед

хирси сафед: polar bear

Дар зимистон хирси сафед то ҳаштод шабонарӯз хоб мекунад, дар ҳолати ҳомиладор буданаш.
In the winter polar bears sleep up to eighty days when they are pregnant.
Хирси сафед ва рӯбоҳи қутбӣ дар Арктика дидан мумкин аст.
It is possible to see polar bears and polar foxes in the Arctic.

Bonus:
хирс: bear
сафед: white
қутб: pole (North or South pole)
қутбӣ: polar

The literal translate of хирси сафед is white bear. You can find instances on the internet where polar bears are called хирси қутбӣ (қутбӣ: polar), but this not as common as хирси сафед. In English, polar foxes are also called Arctic foxes.

The second sentence for today comes from the grade 6 Geography textbook. The first sentence comes from Tiroz website. You can read the whole (very short) article here: Маълумот дар бораи хирси сафед

фил

фил: elephant

Фили ҳиндустонӣ нисбат ба фили африқоӣ хурдтар аст.
The Indian elephant compared to the African elephant is smaller.
Филҳо аз ҳайвоноти азимҷуссаи хушкигард ба шумор мераванд.
Elephants are considered to be large-bodied land animals.

Bonus:
When you use countries as adjectives, as in the first sentence, you add the letter ӣ.

хартум – trunk

You can read more about elephants  here: Қатори хартумдорон. (This is a Tajik website with lots of good reading material.)

Фил ва Мурча барои оббозӣ ба кӯли Комсомоли шаҳри Душанбе мераванд. Баъди 10 дақиқаи Фил аз об берун мебарояд. Мурча сарашро аз об бардошта фарёд мезанад:
-Боз саросема шуда, либосҳои маро напушӣ.
(from Latifa TJ, read more jokes and stories on that website)

An elephant and an ant went to swim at lake Komsomoli in the city of Dushanbe. After 10 minutes the elephant came out of the water. The ant lifted his head out of the water and cried out:
-Don’t be in such a hurry and (accidentally) put on my clothes.

гурба

гурба: cat

Гурба худро шуст.
The cat washed itself.
Ҳамаи ҳайвоноти хонагӣ ба гайр аз гурба ва саг растанихӯр мебошанд.
All domesticated animals except for cats and dogs are herbivores.

Bonus:
Synonym: пишак

гурбача: kitten
гурбаи ёбоӣ: wild cat
гурбамонанд: catlike
гурбамоҳӣ: catfish

Ҳайвоноти хонагӣ (domesticated animals, house animals) can be used to mean pets, but is also used for domesticated animals such as camels, cows, goats, sheep etc.

мурғи марҷон

мурғи марҷон: turkey

Мурғи марҷон дар асри XVI ба Аврупо ва баъдтар ба Тоҷикистон оварда шуд.
Turkeys were brought to Europe in the 16th century, and later brought to Tajikistan.
Мурғи марҷонро асосан барои гӯшт мепарваранд ва гӯшташ бомаза аст.
They raise turkey mainly for its meat and its meat is delicious.

Bonus:
The first sentence is in the singular, but in English the plural was a better translation. You could also translate it, “The turkey was brought…”.

You can learn more animals at Quizlet – боғи ҳайбонот. The matching game is fun, and if you need a real challenge try the gravity game.

нонхӯрак

нонхӯрак: cockroach

Оё шумо медонед, ки нонхӯракҳо ба хунукӣ тобовар набуда, дар ҳарорати -5°С баъд аз 30 дақиқа мемиранд.
Did you know that cockroaches are not resistant to cold, and they will die at a temperature of -5°С for 30 minutes.
Нонхӯракҳо намӣ ва гармиро дӯст медоранд.
Cockroaches love dampness and warmth.

Bonus:
Some other insects:
мӯрча: ant
магас: fly
гамбуск: beetle
ору: wasp
занбӯри асал: bee
сӯзанак: dragonfly
хомӯшак: mosquito
малах: grasshopper

сутунмӯҳрадор

сутунмӯҳрадор: vertebrate

Аксарияти сутунмуҳрадорон болҳо ва пойҳои ҷуфт доранд.
Most vertebrates have pairs of wings and legs.
Ширхӯрон ба монанди дигар сутунмуҳрадорон системаи асаб доранд.
Mammals, like other vertebrates, have a nervous system.

Bonus:
бесутунмӯҳра: invertebrates
сутунмӯҳра: spine

The suffix дор is from the verb доштан, to have. It is a very common suffix. Here are a few more examples:
остиндор: with sleeves, having sleeves
болдор: winged, with wings
бачадор: having a child/children
пулдор: wealthy, having money
таҷрибадор: experienced, having experience
чахрдор: wheeled, having wheels
хордор: thorny, having thorns

ҳайвон

ҳайвон: animal

Дар биёбон бисёр ҳайвонот шабона ба шикор мебароянд.
In the desert many animals come out to hunt at night.
Ҳаёти парандагон ба монанди дигар ҳайвонот вобаста ба мавсими сол тағйир меёбад.
The life of birds, like other animals, varies depending on the season.

Bonus:
This word usually takes the Arabic origin plural ending от, especially in written material.

олами ҳайвонот: animal kingdom
ҳайвоноти мӯҳрадор: vertebrates
ҳайвоноти бемӯҳра: invertebrates
ҳайвоноти алафхӯр: herbivores
ҳайвоноти дарранда: carnivores
ҳайвоноти хонагӣ: domestic animals
ҳайвоноти ёбоӣ: wild animals
ҳайвоноти ширхӯр: mammals

калтакалос

калтакалос: lizard

Дар Тоҷикистон 33 намуди калтакалос дучор мешаванд.
In Tajikistan one can find 33 kinds of lizards.
Аз дуди офтобпараст муш ва калтакалосҳо мегурезанд.
Mice and lizards run away from the smoke of sunflowers.

Bonus:
Also called келас.

The first sentence is written in 3rd person plural, but the English translation is better in 3rd person singular.

Notice that in the second sentence the word for mice does not have the plural ending, ҳо. That is because when listing items the plural ending only has to go on the last item in the list; putting it on the other items is optional, but usually left off. It is understood from context that both words are plural.

You can read about lizards on Tajik Wikipedia: Калтакалос

ҳашарот

ҳашарот: insect

Дар Тоҷикистон 380 хели паранда ва беш аз 10 ҳазор намуди ҳашарот вомехӯранд.
In Tajikistan 380 kinds of birds and more than 10 thousand kinds of insects can be found.
Шимпанзеҳо мева, реша, ҳашарот ва тухми паррандаҳоро мехӯранд.
Chimpanzees eat fruit, roots, insects and bird eggs.

Bonus:
ҳашаротшинос: entomologist

For the first sentence, вомехӯранд means “they meet”. In Tajik the third person plural is often used instead of the passive voice.

Notice in the second sentence that when you have a list of items the direct object marker -ро is only added to the last item in the list.

This word is Arabic in origin. The suffix -от is the plural ending in Arabic. Ҳашарот is the Scientific class, insect, or the collection of insects. Many of these Arabic words with the plural ending are used in Tajik as singular words. The singular of ҳашарот is ҳашара, but that is not often used.

кӯр

кӯр: blind

Кӣ гуноҳ кард: ин одам ё падару модараш, ки вай кӯр зоида шуд?
Who sinned: this man or his father and mother, that he was born blind?
Ҳаминашро медонам, ки ман кӯр будам ва акнун мебинам.
This I know, that I was blind and now I see.

Bonus:
Other meanings –
кӯр: blind person
кӯр: unwise; uninformed

кӯршавпарак: bat
кӯрмуш: mole