Қутби Ҷанубӣ

Қутби Ҷанубӣ: South Pole

14 декабри соли 1911 шаҳрванди Норвегия Раул Амундсен ба Қутби Ҷанубӣ расид.
On the 14th of December 1911, Norwegian citizen Roald Amundsen arrived at the South Pole.
Антарктида дар гирди Қутби Ҷанубӣ ҷойгир аст.
Antarctica is situated around the South Pole.

Bonus:
қутб: pole
ҷануб: south
Қутби Шимолӣ: North Pole

Because the word ҷануб (south) modifies the noun қутб (pole), it takes the suffix ӣ. Ҷанубӣ can also be translated “southern”. Other examples –
нимкураи ҷанубӣ: southern hemisphere
Кореяи Ҷанубӣ: South Korea
дарвозаи ҷанубӣ: southern gate
Африқои Ҷанубӣ: South Africa
Судони Ҷанубӣ: South Sudan
сарҳади ҷанубӣ: southern border

хирси сафед

хирси сафед: polar bear

Дар зимистон хирси сафед то ҳаштод шабонарӯз хоб мекунад, дар ҳолати ҳомиладор буданаш.
In the winter polar bears sleep up to eighty days when they are pregnant.
Хирси сафед ва рӯбоҳи қутбӣ дар Арктика дидан мумкин аст.
It is possible to see polar bears and polar foxes in the Arctic.

Bonus:
хирс: bear
сафед: white
қутб: pole (North or South pole)
қутбӣ: polar

The literal translate of хирси сафед is white bear. You can find instances on the internet where polar bears are called хирси қутбӣ (қутбӣ: polar), but this not as common as хирси сафед. In English, polar foxes are also called Arctic foxes.

The second sentence for today comes from the grade 6 Geography textbook. The first sentence comes from Tiroz website. You can read the whole (very short) article here: Маълумот дар бораи хирси сафед

ангуштарин

ангуштарин: ring

Ангуштарини мардона аввал дар Мисри Қадим, баъд дар ҷойҳои дигар, аз ҷумла дар Тоҷикистон паҳн шуд.
Men’s rings were first in Ancient Egypt, and then spread to other places, such as Tajikistan.
Либоси беҳтарине оварда, ба ӯ пӯшонед, ва ангуштарин ба дасташ, ва пойафзол ба пойҳояш диҳед.
Bring the best clothes and put them on him, and give him a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet.

Bonus:
Other jewelry –
ҷавоҳирот: jewelry
гӯшвора: earring
дастпона: bracelet
гарданбанд: necklace
тоҷ: crown

ангуштарини тиллоӣ: gold ring
ангуштарини нуқрагин: silver ring

арчаи солинавӣ

арчаи солинавӣ

Арчаи солинавии пойтахти Узбакистон бо беш аз ҳазор бозича оро дода шудааст.
The New Year’s tree in the capital of Uzbekistan has been decorated with more than a thousand ornaments.
Дар пойтахти Тоҷикистон баландтарин арчаи солинавӣ дар таърихи кишвар гузошта шудааст: баландии он 28 метрро ташкил медиҳад.
In the capital of Tajikistan the tallest New Year’s tree in the history of the country has been put up: the height of it is 28 metres.

Bonus:
арча: pine tree

In Tajikistan people decorate trees for New Year’s in the same way people in some countries decorate trees for Christmas.

The compound word, солинавӣ, is formed from the words сол (year) and нав (new).
шеъри солинавӣ: New Year’s poem
урфу одатҳои солинавӣ: New Year’s customs and traditions
барномаҳои солинавӣ: New Year’s programs
тӯҳфаи солинавӣ: New Year’s present

Both of today’s sentences come from this news article on sputnik-tj: Арчаҳои кӣ беҳтар: арчаи зеботарин дар кадом кишвари Осиёи марказӣ гузошта шудааст (Whose trees are better: the prettiest tree has been put up in which Central Asian country)

алифбо

алифбо: alphabet

Алифбои забони тоҷикӣ аз сию панҷ ҳарф иборат аст.
The Tajik language alphabet is composed of thirty-five letters.
Калимаҳо дар луғатҳо аз рӯйи тартиби алифбо ҷойгир карда мешаванд.
The words in dictionaries are placed in order of the alphabet.

Bonus:
The word “alphabet” was formed from the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, alif, and бо (with).

Алифбо is also the name of the first textbook that Tajik children use in school to learn the alphabet.

алифбо навиштан: to write the alphabet
иди алифбо: alphabet celebration (when grade 1 students celebrate having learned the alphabet)

Watch the Tajik alphabet song on youtube: Tajik Alphabet Song

кӯҳнавард

кӯҳнавард: mountaineer, alpinist

Се нафар рафикони мо кӯҳнавард мебошанд.
Three friends of ours are mountaineers.
Қуллаи Исмоили Сомониро соли 1933 кӯҳнаварди шӯравӣ Е.Абалаков фатҳ намудааст.
In 1933 the Soviet mountaineer E. Abalakov conquered peak Ismoil Somoni.

Bonus:
Synonyms: кӯҳгард, кӯҳпаймо

кӯҳнавардӣ: mountaineering

навард: present tense stem of навардидан
навардидан: to wrap, to travel

Навард is used in compound words and has the meaning of “traveller”.
раҳнавард: hiker, walker
қайҳоннавард: astronaut
баҳрнавард: mariner, seafarer

фил

фил: elephant

Фили ҳиндустонӣ нисбат ба фили африқоӣ хурдтар аст.
The Indian elephant compared to the African elephant is smaller.
Филҳо аз ҳайвоноти азимҷуссаи хушкигард ба шумор мераванд.
Elephants are considered to be large-bodied land animals.

Bonus:
When you use countries as adjectives, as in the first sentence, you add the letter ӣ.

хартум – trunk

You can read more about elephants  here: Қатори хартумдорон. (This is a Tajik website with lots of good reading material.)

Фил ва Мурча барои оббозӣ ба кӯли Комсомоли шаҳри Душанбе мераванд. Баъди 10 дақиқаи Фил аз об берун мебарояд. Мурча сарашро аз об бардошта фарёд мезанад:
-Боз саросема шуда, либосҳои маро напушӣ.
(from Latifa TJ, read more jokes and stories on that website)

An elephant and an ant went to swim at lake Komsomoli in the city of Dushanbe. After 10 minutes the elephant came out of the water. The ant lifted his head out of the water and cried out:
-Don’t be in such a hurry and (accidentally) put on my clothes.

санги осиёб

санги осиё, санги осиёб: millstone

Санги осиёб бо мадади оби равон чарх мезанад.
The millstone turns with the help of running water.
Падарам ба тарошидани санги осиё машғул буд.
My father was busy carving a millstone.

Bonus:
Synonym: осиёсанг
There are two words for mill – осиёб and осиё. They can be used interchangeably.

осиёсанг, санги осиё: millstone
осиёхона, хонаи осиё: mill house
чархи осиё: mill wheel, the water wheel that powers the mill
осиёб кардан: to grind
осиёи бодӣ: windmill

синф

синф: class, grade

Писарам дар синфи ҳаштум мехонад.
My son studies in the eighth class.
Дар синфи шумо чанд нафар талаба мехонанд?
How many students are in your grade?

Bonus:
In Tajik you usually say what grade/class someone studies in, not what grade/class they are in. (In the US they say “grade”, and in the UK they say “year” or “class”.)

The word синфхона is classroom, but синф is also used to mean classroom.
The word синф is also used as the taxonomy class, for example the class of mammals is синфи ширхӯрон. You can see all the taxonomy classifications by looking at animals on Tajik Wikipedia, for example саг (dog).

собун

собун: soap

Баъди кор ва пеш аз таом дастро бо собун шустан зарур аст.
After work and before a meal it is necessary to wash your hands with soap.
Бо собун чӣ кор мекунанд? Бо собун дасту рӯй ва либос мешӯянд.
What do they do with soap? With soap they wash hands and face, and they wash clothes.

Bonus:
The second example sounds a bit strange in the translation because in English we would use the passive voice to ask and answer that question, that is, “What is soap used for? (or What does one do with soap?) Soap is used for washing ones hands and face, and for washing clothes.” In Tajik it is very common to use 3rd person plural when talking in general terms about how to do something, for example when telling a recipe.
Lesson suggestion: The second example is a good way to learn new verbs. Prepare a list of nouns. Sit with your language helper, turn on a recording device, and then substitute your nouns into that sentence. What do they do with potatoes? with paper? with an axe? with a cow? Most nouns will produce lots of verbs. Paper, for example, can be folded, torn, written on, drawn on, crumpled, made into a paper aeroplane, cut etc; cows can be raised, bred, pastured, slaughtered etc.