тобистон

тобистон: summer

Тобистон баъд аз фасли баҳор ва пеш аз фасли тирамоҳ меояд.
Summer comes after spring and before autumn (fall).
Имсол тобистон хеле гарм мешавад.
This year summer will be very hot.

Bonus:
If you need to learn or practice words related to months and seasons you can check out this:
Memrise – Tajik Months and Seasons.
(You have to join Memrise, but it’s completely free.)
You can change this noun to an adjective by adding the letter а to get тобистона.
e.g. либоси тобистона – summer clothes

фасл

фасл: season

Сол ба фаслҳо тақсим мешавад.
A year is divided into seasons.
Дар як сол чор фасл ҳаст.
There are four seasons in one year.

Bonus:
If you need to learn or practice words related to months and seasons you can check out this:
Memrise – Tajik Months and Seasons.
(You have to join Memrise, but it’s completely free.)
Notice from the second sentence above, that when a noun comes after a number it does not have the plural ending as it would in English.

бегона

бегона: stranger

Гӯсфандон аз паси бегона намераванд.
The sheep will not follow (go behind) a stranger.
Меҳмонро, хоҳ дӯст бошаду хоҳ бегона, иззату икром бикун.
Respect and honour the guest, whether he is a friend or a stranger.

Bonus:
Here is a great phrase. Challenge – use this today. In a nice, joking way of course.
Ту аз ақл бегона шудӣ! – Literally: You have become a stranger to wisdom (or reason)! or You’re crazy!
Бегона can also be an adjective as in алафи бегона – weed.

мусобиқа

мусобиқа: competition

Асп бо номи «Робин Гуд» ғолиби мусобиқа шуд.
A horse with the name “Robin Hood” was the winner of the competition.
Дар ин мусобиқа 30 нафар шиноварон иштирок карданд.
30 swimmers participated in this competition.

Bonus:
A common pattern for Arabic loan words is му*о*и*а where the * stands for a consonant. Here are some more examples:
мубориза – fight, struggle;
муқобила – opposition;
муболиға – exaggeration;
муҳокима – discussion;
мулоҳиза – consideration, opinion

кунҷ

кунҷ: corner

Писараш дар кунҷи ошхона бозӣ мекард.
Her son would play in the corner of the kitchen.
Бедона ба кунҷи хона парида рафта, дар рӯи кӯрпача нишаст.
The quail flew to the corner of the room and sat on the korpacha (floor mat).

Bonus:
Кунҷ and кунҷа are used to make several compound words.
секунҷа – triangle
росткунҷа – rectangle
And my favourite:
кунҷков – curious; (ков is from the verb кофтан, to look for)

булбул

булбул: nightingale

Марям булбул барин месарояд.
Mariam sings like a nightingale.
Булбул паррандаи хурдакаки зебо ва хушовоз мебошад.
A nightingale is a small, beautiful and sweet-singing bird.

Bonus:
Here is a proverb. Feel free to discuss the meaning and when you could use this proverb in the comments below.
Шахси беватан – булбули бечаман.
A person without a homeland is like a nightingale without a meadow.
Tajik Wikipedia has a short article about nightingales that is not too difficult to read.

нашр

нашр: publication

Дар нашри якуми Китоби сурхи Тоҷикистон 162 намуди ҳайвонот дохил гардида буд.
In the first publication of the Red Book of Tajikistan 162 animal species were included.

Bonus:
The Red Book is a book that lists all of the endangered species in Tajikistan.
Notice the same three consonants in the word ношир (publisher), a clue that this is probably an Arabic loan word.

чашм

чашм: eye

Мо ӯро бо чашмони худ дидаем.
We have seen him with our own eyes.
Шахси чашмонаш кабуд зудранҷ, вале зираку мушфиқ мешавад.
A person with blue eyes is easily offended, but wise and compassionate.

Bonus:
If you want to know what your eye colour says about your personality read this article from Tajikistan times.
When making a noun plural, generally the suffix ҳо is used for inanimate objects, and the suffix он is used for animals and people. There are a few exceptions. Some body parts can take the suffix он, for example чашмон (eyes) and китфон (shoulders). A few other inanimate objects can take the suffix он, for example ситорагон (stars) and дарахтон (trees).
Note that colloquially, ҳо is used for animals and people, as well as for inanimate objects.

акс

акс: image

Дар оби ҳавз ӯ акси худро дид.
In the water of the pool he saw his own image.
Порлумон тарҳи пули 1000 сомониро бо акси Э.Раҳмон ба Бонки Миллӣ фиристодааст.
Parliament has sent a design of a 1000 Somoni note with the image of E. Rahmon to the National Bank.

Bonus:
It isn’t clear yet whether the proposed 1000 Somoni note will be issued, but if you want to see the image and read a bit about it you can do that here at Радио Озодӣ and you can watch a short video about it here at Радио Озодӣ.

эҳтиром

эҳтиром: respect, honour

Ҳар як муаллим сазовори эҳтиром мебошад.
Every single teacher is worthy of respect.
Падару модари худро эҳтиром намо.
Honour your father and mother.

Bonus:
Today you get 2 for the price of 1 – a noun and a verb. But that is one of the things that is so great about Tajik – you can easily make verbs once you know the noun. So эҳтиром – respect, honour. And эҳтиром намудан – to respect, to honour. (You can use эҳтиром кардан instead.)
Notice the same ordering of consonants in мӯҳтарам – respected, honoured (adj).