ҷуворимакка

ҷуворимакка: corn

Амакам тобистони гузашта дар як гӯшаи холии боғаш ҷуворимакка корид.
Last summer my uncle planted corn in an empty corner of his garden.
Ҷуворимаккаро соли 1493 аз Амрикои Ҷанубӣ ба Аврупо оварданд.
In 1493 they brought corn from South America to Europe.

Bonus:
Also called ҷуворӣ.

ҷуворимаккаи сафед: white corn
ҷуворимаккапарвар: corn grower
ҷуворимаккапарварӣ: corn growing
ҷуворимакказор: corn field

бирён кардан

бирён кардан: to fry

Гӯштро дар равғани доғ аз ду тараф бирён кунед.
Fry the meat on both sides in hot oil.
Картошкаи хомро шуста, пусташро мегирем, баъд пора карда, дар равған то сурх шуданаш бирён мекунем.
We wash the raw potatoes, and peel them, then we cut them and fry them in oil until they are browned.

Bonus:
You can also use бирён in a compound word to name several fried foods, for example –
картошкабирён: fried potatoes
тухмбирён: fried eggs
гӯштбирён: fried meat
мурхбирён: fried chicken
ҷигарбирён: fried liver

мева

мева: fruit

Дарахти хубе нест, ки меваи бад меоварда бошад.
There is no good tree that can produce bad fruit.
Ҳар дарахт аз мевааш шинохта мешавад.
Every tree is recognized by its fruit.

Bonus:
меваи хушк: dried fruit
мевадор: fruit-bearing, having fruit
мевафурӯш: fruit seller
мевафурӯшӣ: fruit-selling
мевачинӣ: fruit-picking

You can learn fruits at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

пиёз

пиёз: onion

Бисёр таомҳои тоҷикиро бо пиёз мепазанд.
Many Tajik dishes are cooked with onions.
Аввал гӯшт, пиёз, сабзиро бирён мекунанд.
First fry the meat, onions and carrots.

Bonus:
Notice that both of today’s sentences are written in the third person plural, but not translated into English that way.
Sentence #1: In Tajik the passive tense is not used as much as in English. The third person plural is usually used instead.
Sentence #2: In Tajik recipes are usually written in the third person plural, whereas in English they are usually written in the imperative.

пиёзи сабз: green onions
пиёзи ансул (or пиези анзур): Persian shallot

Short article about onions from the Tiroz website: Оё медонед ки пиёз қариб 500 намуд дорад (Did you know that there are nearly 500 types of onions).

лимӯ

лимӯ: lemon

Лимӯ меваи туршмазаи хушбўӣ аст, ки дар ҷойҳои зимистонаш гарм мерӯяд.
A lemon is a sour-tasting, sweet-smelling fruit, which grows in places where the winter is warm.
Мо лимӯ хариданӣ будем, аммо дар бозор лимӯ набудааст.
We were going to buy lemons, but in the market there were no lemons.

Bonus:
Лимӯ also means lemon tree.

лимӯранг: lemon-coloured
лимӯзор: lemon grove
лимӯпарвар: lemon grower
лимӯпарварӣ: lemon-growing

You can learn more fruits at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

занбӯруғ

занбӯруғ: mushroom

Занбӯруғ навъе аз растанист, ки реша, барг ва гул надорад ва дар баҳорон дар ҷойҳои сернам мерӯяд.
A mushroom is a kind of plant that has no roots, leaves and flowers and grows in the spring in wet places.
Ҳангоми занбӯруғчинӣ занбӯруғҳои хурданибобро аз занбӯруғҳои заҳрнок фарқ карда тавонистан лозим.
When mushroom picking it is important to be able to tell the difference between edible mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms.

Bonus:
Alternate spelling: замбӯруғ
Synonyms: қорч, саморуғ, хоч

Here is an easy online recipe for rice with mushrooms: Хӯрок бо Занбӯруғ
And here is a not too difficult to read article about mushrooms: Занбӯруғ

таом

таом: food, meal

Дар он ҷо таоми миллӣ мепазанд.
They cook national food there.
Таоми якумро барои ҳар як кас дар коса медиҳанд.
The first food (first course) is given to each person in a bowl.

Bonus:
From Tajik dictionary –
таом: ҳар чизи хӯрданӣ, хӯрок

таоми гарм: hot food, hot meal
обу таом: food and drink
таомхона: restaurant
таомпаз: cook

харбуза

харбуза: melon

Мо аз бозор се дона харбуза харидем.
We bought three melons from the bazaar.
Мо аз сабзавот, мева, харбузаю тарбуз ҳеҷ камӣ надоштем.
We had no shortage of vegetables, fruit, melons and watermelons.

Bonus:
Because the word харбуза ends in a vowel, you can’t just put у on it for “and”. You either have to say “харбузаю тарбуз” or “харбузаву тарбуз”. Both ways are used.

There is a good article about харбуза and all its uses here: Tiroz website – харбуза

Need to practice your fruit and nuts vocab? You can do it at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts.

анҷир

анҷир: fig

Дар Тоҷикистон ду намуди анҷир парвариш карда мешавад.
In Tajikistan two types of fig are grown.
Дарахти анҷир наметавонад зайтун оварад, ё токи ангур – анҷир.
A fig tree can’t produce olives, or a grapevine – figs.

Bonus:
анҷирзор: fig orchard
You can learn more words for fruit and nuts on Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

намак

намак: salt

Намакро барои пухтани қариб ҳамаи таомро истифода мебаранд.
Salt is used for cooking almost all meals.
Дар як тонна оби уқёнус сию панҷ килограмм намак мавҷуд аст.
In one ton of ocean water there are thirty-five kilograms of salt.

Bonus:
The first sentence is literally “They use salt for cooking almost all meals”, but it doesn’t mean specific people; it is in a general sense. In English we might say, “one uses salt for cooking almost all meals”.

намакдон: salt shaker
кони намак: salt mine
намакин: salty
намакшинос: grateful, thankful
кӯрнамак: ungrateful, not thankful

Намак хӯрду намакдон шикаст. – He ate the salt and broke the saltshaker. This idiom means that he repaid a good deed with a bad one.