лимӯ

лимӯ: lemon

Лимӯ меваи туршмазаи хушбўӣ аст, ки дар ҷойҳои зимистонаш гарм мерӯяд.
A lemon is a sour-tasting, sweet-smelling fruit, which grows in places where the winter is warm.
Мо лимӯ хариданӣ будем, аммо дар бозор лимӯ набудааст.
We were going to buy lemons, but in the market there were no lemons.

Bonus:
Лимӯ also means lemon tree.

лимӯранг: lemon-coloured
лимӯзор: lemon grove
лимӯпарвар: lemon grower
лимӯпарварӣ: lemon-growing

You can learn more fruits at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

занбӯруғ

занбӯруғ: mushroom

Занбӯруғ навъе аз растанист, ки реша, барг ва гул надорад ва дар баҳорон дар ҷойҳои сернам мерӯяд.
A mushroom is a kind of plant that has no roots, leaves and flowers and grows in the spring in wet places.
Ҳангоми занбӯруғчинӣ занбӯруғҳои хурданибобро аз занбӯруғҳои заҳрнок фарқ карда тавонистан лозим.
When mushroom picking it is important to be able to tell the difference between edible mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms.

Bonus:
Alternate spelling: замбӯруғ
Synonyms: қорч, саморуғ, хоч

Here is an easy online recipe for rice with mushrooms: Хӯрок бо Занбӯруғ
And here is a not too difficult to read article about mushrooms: Занбӯруғ

таом

таом: food, meal

Дар он ҷо таоми миллӣ мепазанд.
They cook national food there.
Таоми якумро барои ҳар як кас дар коса медиҳанд.
The first food (first course) is given to each person in a bowl.

Bonus:
From Tajik dictionary –
таом: ҳар чизи хӯрданӣ, хӯрок

таоми гарм: hot food, hot meal
обу таом: food and drink
таомхона: restaurant
таомпаз: cook

харбуза

харбуза: melon

Мо аз бозор се дона харбуза харидем.
We bought three melons from the bazaar.
Мо аз сабзавот, мева, харбузаю тарбуз ҳеҷ камӣ надоштем.
We had no shortage of vegetables, fruit, melons and watermelons.

Bonus:
Because the word харбуза ends in a vowel, you can’t just put у on it for “and”. You either have to say “харбузаю тарбуз” or “харбузаву тарбуз”. Both ways are used.

There is a good article about харбуза and all its uses here: Tiroz website – харбуза

Need to practice your fruit and nuts vocab? You can do it at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts.

анҷир

анҷир: fig

Дар Тоҷикистон ду намуди анҷир парвариш карда мешавад.
In Tajikistan two types of fig are grown.
Дарахти анҷир наметавонад зайтун оварад, ё токи ангур – анҷир.
A fig tree can’t produce olives, or a grapevine – figs.

Bonus:
анҷирзор: fig orchard
You can learn more words for fruit and nuts on Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

намак

намак: salt

Намакро барои пухтани қариб ҳамаи таомро истифода мебаранд.
Salt is used for cooking almost all meals.
Дар як тонна оби уқёнус сию панҷ килограмм намак мавҷуд аст.
In one ton of ocean water there are thirty-five kilograms of salt.

Bonus:
The first sentence is literally “They use salt for cooking almost all meals”, but it doesn’t mean specific people; it is in a general sense. In English we might say, “one uses salt for cooking almost all meals”.

намакдон: salt shaker
кони намак: salt mine
намакин: salty
намакшинос: grateful, thankful
кӯрнамак: ungrateful, not thankful

Намак хӯрду намакдон шикаст. – He ate the salt and broke the saltshaker. This idiom means that he repaid a good deed with a bad one.

моҳӣ

моҳӣ: fish

Мо танҳо панҷ нон ва ду моҳӣ дорем.
We only have five bread and two fish.
“Ин моҳӣ аз қаиқи ман дарозтар будааст”, гуфт пирамард.
“This fish was longer than my boat”, said the old man.

Bonus:
моҳигир: fisherman
моҳигирӣ: fishing
моҳипарвар: fish farmer
моҳипарварӣ: fish farming
Notice that when you add a suffix to a word ending with ӣ, it is changed to и. You can’t have ӣ in the middle of a word.

биҳӣ

биҳӣ: quince

Аз меваҳо биҳӣ хеле дер гул мекунад ва дер мепазад.
Among the fruits quince blooms late and ripens late.
Биҳӣ қариб дар ҳама ноҳияҳои Тоҷикистон парвариш меёбад.
Quince is grown in almost all of the districts of Tajikistan.

Bonus:
Quince is also called себи биҳӣ.
You can read more about quince on Tajik wikipedia: биҳӣ.
To make this word an adjective, add the suffix гӣ.
мураббои биҳигӣ: quince preserves (jam)

ғизо

ғизо: food, meal, nourishment

Обро дар вақти ғизо ва ду соат баъди ғизо нӯшидан беҳтар аст.
It is better to drink water with a meal and two hours after a meal.
Кайк метавонад муддати зиёд (зиёда аз як сол) бе ғизо зиндагӣ кунад.
A flea can live for a long time (more than one year) without food.

Bonus:
Definition from the Tajik dictionary –
ғизо: чизе, ки хӯрда мешавад ва ба тан қувват медиҳад
Synonyms: хӯрок, таом, қут
серғизо: nourishing, filling

тарбуз

тарбуз: watermelon

Тарбуз хеле болаззат буд.
The watermelon was very delicious.
Тарбузро зимни табобати артрит, фаромӯшхотирӣ ва камхунӣ истифода мебаранд.
They use watermelon in the treatment of arthritis, memory loss and anemia.

Bonus:
Need to practice your fruit and nuts vocab? You can do it at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts.
Here is a short funny video about somebody buying a watermelon: Тарбуз ту ширинаӣ?
Tajik idiom: тарбуз аз бағал афтидан = ноумед шудан (to drop one’s watermelon = to lose hope).
For example, if you thought you were going to get some money, but then you realized that you wouldn’t you could say, “Тарбуз аз бағалам афтид.”
Read more about the health benefits of watermelon here: Тарбуз.