нок

нок: pear

Дар Тоҷикистон сенздаҳ навъи нокро парвариш мекунанд.
In Tajikistan they cultivate thirteen kinds of pears.
Пухтарасии меваи нок чун себ аз моҳи июн шурӯъ шуда, то моҳи октябр давом мекунад.
The ripening of pears, like apples, starts in June and lasts until October.

Bonus:
The first sentence could also be translated in the passive voice, which is not used much in Tajik.
“Thirteen kinds of pears are cultivated in Tajikistan.”

You can learn the names of more fruit at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts.

гӯшт

гӯшт: meat

Дар бисёр ҷойҳо хукҳои ваҳширо барои пӯст ва гӯшт шикор мекунанд.
In many places wild pigs are hunted for their skin and meat.
Гӯштро майда реза карда дар равғани доғ то камтар сурх шудани рӯи гӯшт зирбонед.
Cut the meat into small pieces and fry it in hot oil until the outside of the meat is slightly browned.

Bonus:
гӯшти гусфанд: mutton (sheep meat)
гӯшти гов: beef (cow meat)

Add the letter ӣ to this noun to turn it into an adjective:
самбӯсаҳои гӯштӣ: meat pastries
шӯрбои гӯштӣ: meat soup

бегӯшт: meatless, without meat
сергӯшт: with lots of meat, meaty

The word гӯшт can also refer to the fleshy part of a fruit or vegetable.

ҷуворимакка

ҷуворимакка: corn

Амакам тобистони гузашта дар як гӯшаи холии боғаш ҷуворимакка корид.
Last summer my uncle planted corn in an empty corner of his garden.
Ҷуворимаккаро соли 1493 аз Амрикои Ҷанубӣ ба Аврупо оварданд.
In 1493 they brought corn from South America to Europe.

Bonus:
Also called ҷуворӣ.

ҷуворимаккаи сафед: white corn
ҷуворимаккапарвар: corn grower
ҷуворимаккапарварӣ: corn growing
ҷуворимакказор: corn field

бирён кардан

бирён кардан: to fry

Гӯштро дар равғани доғ аз ду тараф бирён кунед.
Fry the meat on both sides in hot oil.
Картошкаи хомро шуста, пусташро мегирем, баъд пора карда, дар равған то сурх шуданаш бирён мекунем.
We wash the raw potatoes, and peel them, then we cut them and fry them in oil until they are browned.

Bonus:
You can also use бирён in a compound word to name several fried foods, for example –
картошкабирён: fried potatoes
тухмбирён: fried eggs
гӯштбирён: fried meat
мурхбирён: fried chicken
ҷигарбирён: fried liver

мева

мева: fruit

Дарахти хубе нест, ки меваи бад меоварда бошад.
There is no good tree that can produce bad fruit.
Ҳар дарахт аз мевааш шинохта мешавад.
Every tree is recognized by its fruit.

Bonus:
меваи хушк: dried fruit
мевадор: fruit-bearing, having fruit
мевафурӯш: fruit seller
мевафурӯшӣ: fruit-selling
мевачинӣ: fruit-picking

You can learn fruits at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

пиёз

пиёз: onion

Бисёр таомҳои тоҷикиро бо пиёз мепазанд.
Many Tajik dishes are cooked with onions.
Аввал гӯшт, пиёз, сабзиро бирён мекунанд.
First fry the meat, onions and carrots.

Bonus:
Notice that both of today’s sentences are written in the third person plural, but not translated into English that way.
Sentence #1: In Tajik the passive tense is not used as much as in English. The third person plural is usually used instead.
Sentence #2: In Tajik recipes are usually written in the third person plural, whereas in English they are usually written in the imperative.

пиёзи сабз: green onions
пиёзи ансул (or пиези анзур): Persian shallot

Short article about onions from the Tiroz website: Оё медонед ки пиёз қариб 500 намуд дорад (Did you know that there are nearly 500 types of onions).

лимӯ

лимӯ: lemon

Лимӯ меваи туршмазаи хушбўӣ аст, ки дар ҷойҳои зимистонаш гарм мерӯяд.
A lemon is a sour-tasting, sweet-smelling fruit, which grows in places where the winter is warm.
Мо лимӯ хариданӣ будем, аммо дар бозор лимӯ набудааст.
We were going to buy lemons, but in the market there were no lemons.

Bonus:
Лимӯ also means lemon tree.

лимӯранг: lemon-coloured
лимӯзор: lemon grove
лимӯпарвар: lemon grower
лимӯпарварӣ: lemon-growing

You can learn more fruits at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts

занбӯруғ

занбӯруғ: mushroom

Занбӯруғ навъе аз растанист, ки реша, барг ва гул надорад ва дар баҳорон дар ҷойҳои сернам мерӯяд.
A mushroom is a kind of plant that has no roots, leaves and flowers and grows in the spring in wet places.
Ҳангоми занбӯруғчинӣ занбӯруғҳои хурданибобро аз занбӯруғҳои заҳрнок фарқ карда тавонистан лозим.
When mushroom picking it is important to be able to tell the difference between edible mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms.

Bonus:
Alternate spelling: замбӯруғ
Synonyms: қорч, саморуғ, хоч

Here is an easy online recipe for rice with mushrooms: Хӯрок бо Занбӯруғ
And here is a not too difficult to read article about mushrooms: Занбӯруғ

таом

таом: food, meal

Дар он ҷо таоми миллӣ мепазанд.
They cook national food there.
Таоми якумро барои ҳар як кас дар коса медиҳанд.
The first food (first course) is given to each person in a bowl.

Bonus:
From Tajik dictionary –
таом: ҳар чизи хӯрданӣ, хӯрок

таоми гарм: hot food, hot meal
обу таом: food and drink
таомхона: restaurant
таомпаз: cook

харбуза

харбуза: melon

Мо аз бозор се дона харбуза харидем.
We bought three melons from the bazaar.
Мо аз сабзавот, мева, харбузаю тарбуз ҳеҷ камӣ надоштем.
We had no shortage of vegetables, fruit, melons and watermelons.

Bonus:
Because the word харбуза ends in a vowel, you can’t just put у on it for “and”. You either have to say “харбузаю тарбуз” or “харбузаву тарбуз”. Both ways are used.

There is a good article about харбуза and all its uses here: Tiroz website – харбуза

Need to practice your fruit and nuts vocab? You can do it at Memrise: Tajik Fruit and Nuts.