аҳолӣ

аҳолӣ: population, inhabitants

Ҳар сол аҳолии Тоҷикистон тақрибан 100 ҳазор нафар зиёд мешавад.
Every year the population of Tajikistan increases by about 100 thousand people.
Зиёда аз 75 фоизи аҳолии Тоҷикистон дар деҳот зиндагӣ мекунанд.
More than 75 percent of the inhabitants of Tajikistan live in villages.

Bonus:
аҳл: inhabitant

The word аҳл is Arabic in origin. Its plural form, аҳолӣ, is quite different from the singular although some of the letters are the same. Here are some more examples of Arabic origin words with interesting plurals. Note that these words also (and more commonly) take the normal plural ending, ҳо.
тифл – атфол: child – children
ҳодиса – ҳаводис: event – events
амр – умур: command – commands

ҳашарот

ҳашарот: insect

Дар Тоҷикистон 380 хели паранда ва беш аз 10 ҳазор намуди ҳашарот вомехӯранд.
In Tajikistan 380 kinds of birds and more than 10 thousand kinds of insects can be found.
Шимпанзеҳо мева, реша, ҳашарот ва тухми паррандаҳоро мехӯранд.
Chimpanzees eat fruit, roots, insects and bird eggs.

Bonus:
ҳашаротшинос: entomologist

For the first sentence, вомехӯранд means “they meet”. In Tajik the third person plural is often used instead of the passive voice.

Notice in the second sentence that when you have a list of items the direct object marker -ро is only added to the last item in the list.

This word is Arabic in origin. The suffix -от is the plural ending in Arabic. Ҳашарот is the Scientific class, insect, or the collection of insects. Many of these Arabic words with the plural ending are used in Tajik as singular words. The singular of ҳашарот is ҳашара, but that is not often used.

фикр

фикр: thought, opinion

Фикри шумо фикри нав не.
Your thought is not a new thought.
Ҳозир фикри ҳамаро шунидан лозим.
Now it is necessary to hear everyone’s opinion.

Bonus:
Synonyms: андеша, хаёл

ба фикри ман: in my opinion
фикр кардан: to think
фикрӣ: mental
кори фикрӣ: mental work

озодфикр: free-thinking
парешонфикр: scatter-brained
ҳамфикр: like-minded

фурсат

фурсат: opportunity

Фурсат расид, ки ман бо фарзандонам ба Самарқанд равам.
An opportunity arose for me to go to Samarkand with my children.
Ҳоким фурсати гурехтан наёфта, дар даруни қалъаи шаҳр пинҳон шуд.
Hokim, not finding a chance to flee, hid inside the town fort.

Bonus:
фурсат додан: to give an opportunity or chance
фурсатро аз даст додан: to give up the chance, to lose the opportunity
фурсат ёфтан: to find an opportunity

тараф

тараф: side, direction

Дар ду тарафи хона айвонҳои дароз сохта шудаанд.
On two sides of the house long verandas have been built.
Тӯрро ба тарафи рости киштӣ андозед.
Put in the net on the right side of the boat.

Bonus:
The word тараф can also be used to talk about two sides of an argument and two sides of a sports match.

аз ҳар тараф: from all sides, from all directions
тарафи касеро гирифтан: to take a person’s side, to agree with a person
тарафдор: supporter, one who is on your side

Тараф is an Arabic origin word, which in its plural form is атроф. Notice that the three consonants are the same.
атроф: surroundings, around
ба атроф = ба ҳар тараф : all around

қабр

қабр: grave, tomb

Хеле барвақт дар рӯзи якуми ҳафта, чун офтоб баромад, онҳо ба сари қабр омаданд.
Very early on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen, they went to the tomb.
Мардуми Бухоро ҳар сол дар рӯзҳои аввали Наврӯз дар сари қабри Сиёвуш сурудҳои мотамӣ мехонанд.
Every year during the first days of Navruz the people of Bukhara sing mourning songs at the grave of Siyavush.

Bonus:
Siyavush was a Persian prince who, according to legend, was beheaded by his father-in-law and is buried in Bukhara.

қабристон: graveyard
қабр кандан: to dig a grave
қабркан: gravedigger

насл

насл: generation

Ҳамаи наслҳо аз Иброҳим то Довуд чордаҳ насл аст.
All the generations from Abraham to David is fourteen generations.
Глаукома хосияти ирсӣ дошта, аз насл ба насл мегузарад.
Glaucoma, having a hereditary quality, passes from generation to generation.

Bonus:
насли нави олимон: new generation of scientists
насли ҷавони ҳозира: younger generation (of today)
аз насл ба насл: from generation to generation

таркиб

таркиб: composition

Ҳар як ҷангал аз ҳамдигар аз рӯйи таркиби набототаш фарқ мекунад.
Every forest differs from one another on account of the composition of its plant life.
Лӯбиё дар таркибаш оҳани зиёд дорад.
Beans have a lot of iron in their composition.
(Beans contain a lot of iron.)

Bonus:
Notice that the second sentence in Tajik is in the singular, whereas in English it sounds better in the plural.

Words with the pattern TAccvc (c=consonant; v=vowel) are usually Arabic in origin. Often a related word can be found beginning with MY and having the same consonants.
мураккаб: (adj.) complex; composed of many things; complicated

таркиби луғавӣ: lexical composition; vocabulary

From Standard Tajik-English dictionary (R. Olsen)
Дар таркиби луғавии забони тоҷикӣ калимаҳои арабӣ хеле зиёданд.
There are a lot of Arabic words in the Tajik vocabulary.

таом

таом: food, meal

Дар он ҷо таоми миллӣ мепазанд.
They cook national food there.
Таоми якумро барои ҳар як кас дар коса медиҳанд.
The first food (first course) is given to each person in a bowl.

Bonus:
From Tajik dictionary –
таом: ҳар чизи хӯрданӣ, хӯрок

таоми гарм: hot food, hot meal
обу таом: food and drink
таомхона: restaurant
таомпаз: cook

сатҳ

сатҳ: surface, surface area

Дар рӯз Офтоб сатҳи Заминро гарм менамояд.
In the day the sun warms the surface of the earth.
Пиряхи рӯизаминӣ қариб тамоми сатҳи Антарктидаро фаро гирифтааст.
A continental glacier covers almost all of the surface of Antarctica.

Bonus:
сатҳи Замин: the surface of the earth
сатҳи об: the surface of the water
сатҳи Моҳ: the surface of the moon
сатҳи Миррих: the surface of Mars
аз сатҳи баҳр: from the surface of the sea; above sea level