Word A Day


тарсидан: to be scared

Ман аз ту наметарсам!
I am not scared of you!
Аз сояи худ метарсад.
He is scared of his own shadow.

Don’t confused тарсидан (to be scared) with тарсондан (to scare).
Ман аз вай тарсидам – I was scared of him.
Ман вайро тарсондам. – I scared him.
Somebody who is scared of everything is тарсончак.


нашр: publication

Дар нашри якуми Китоби сурхи Тоҷикистон 162 намуди ҳайвонот дохил гардида буд.
In the first publication of the Red Book of Tajikistan 162 animal species were included.

The Red Book is a book that lists all of the endangered species in Tajikistan.
Notice the same three consonants in the word ношир (publisher), a clue that this is probably an Arabic loan word.

иштирок кардан

иштирок кардан: to participate

Метавонӣ иштирок кунӣ.
You can participate.
Баҳром бо дӯстонаш дар мусобиқаи ҳоккей иштирок кард.
Bahrom participated in the hockey match with his friends.

Иштирок by itself means participation (a noun).
Combine ишторок with the very helpful suffix кунанда (one who does) to get иштироккунанда – one who participates, or the participant.

тасаввур кардан

тасаввур кардан: to imagine

Зиндагиро бе нон тасаввур кардан душвор аст.
It is difficult to imagine life without bread.
Худамро дар ҷои онҳо тасаввур мекардам ва мехостам мисли онҳо донишҷӯ бошам.
I would imagine myself in their place, and wanted to be a university student like them.

Here’s a great way to start a sentence:
Ман ҳеҷ тасаввур намекардам, ки … – I never would have imagined that …


ҳам: also, too

Ман ҳам бо ӯ суҳбат кардам.
I also talked to him.
Порсол Хуршеда ҳам бо мо сафар кард.
Last year Khursheda also took a trip with us.

Ҳам can be used to form many compound words. One way is to form a noun that is a person who is doing the same thing or is similar to another person in some way. For example:
ҳамкор – co-worker; ҳамватан – fellow citizen; ҳамсинф – fellow class mate; ҳамавлод – relative; ҳамсафар – fellow traveler; ҳамкасб – colleague; ҳамшаҳр – fellow townsman.


чашм: eye

Мо ӯро бо чашмони худ дидаем.
We have seen him with our own eyes.
Шахси чашмонаш кабуд зудранҷ, вале зираку мушфиқ мешавад.
A person with blue eyes is easily offended, but wise and compassionate.

If you want to know what your eye colour says about your personality read this article from Tajikistan times.
When making a noun plural, generally the suffix ҳо is used for inanimate objects, and the suffix он is used for animals and people. There are a few exceptions. Some body parts can take the suffix он, for example чашмон (eyes) and китфон (shoulders). A few other inanimate objects can take the suffix он, for example ситорагон (stars) and дарахтон (trees).
Note that colloquially, ҳо is used for animals and people, as well as for inanimate objects.


акс: image

Дар оби ҳавз ӯ акси худро дид.
In the water of the pool he saw his own image.
Порлумон тарҳи пули 1000 сомониро бо акси Э.Раҳмон ба Бонки Миллӣ фиристодааст.
Parliament has sent a design of a 1000 Somoni note with the image of E. Rahmon to the National Bank.

It isn’t clear yet whether the proposed 1000 Somoni note will be issued, but if you want to see the image and read a bit about it you can do that here at Радио Озодӣ and you can watch a short video about it here at Радио Озодӣ.


эҳтиром: respect, honour

Ҳар як муаллим сазовори эҳтиром мебошад.
Every single teacher is worthy of respect.
Падару модари худро эҳтиром намо.
Honour your father and mother.

Today you get 2 for the price of 1 – a noun and a verb. But that is one of the things that is so great about Tajik – you can easily make verbs once you know the noun. So эҳтиром – respect, honour. And эҳтиром намудан – to respect, to honour. (You can use эҳтиром кардан instead.)
Notice the same ordering of consonants in мӯҳтарам – respected, honoured (adj).


фоиданок: beneficial

Себи хушк низ монанди себи тару тоза фоиданок аст.
A dried apple also, like a fresh apple, is beneficial.
Ҳама чиз барои ман равост, лекин на ҳар чиз фоиданок аст.
Everything for me is permissible, but not everything is beneficial.

Adding the suffix нок to a noun forms an adjective. You can think of нок as meaning “full of” or “with”. Фоида means benefit, so фоида + нок = with benefit, or beneficial. Sometimes you can add the suffix нок or the prefix пур to get two words with the same meaning, for example пурсабр = сабрнок = patient. More examples:
пурдард = дарднок = painful
пурихтисос = ихтисоснок = skilled
пурдаҳшат = даҳшатнок = terrifying
Apparently partridges are beneficial. You can read about that here: Кавк хеле фоиданок аст


пурсабр: patient

Муҳаббат пурсабр ва меҳрубон аст.
Love is patient and kind.
Бо ҳар кас пурсабр бошед.
Be patient with everyone.

Adding the prefix пур to a noun creates an adjective.
сабр – patience (n); пурсабр – patient (adj)
Here are some more examples:
ғазаб – anger (n); пурғазаб – angry (adj)
таҷриба – experience (n); пуртаҷриба – experienced (adj)
ҳикмат – wisdom (n); пурҳикмат – wise (adj)
санг – rock, stone (n); пурсанг – rocky, stony (adj)
Need more adjectives in your life? Join Memrise (free) and click here: Tajik Adjectives.