Word A Day

арзиш

арзиш: cost, price

Дар бозорҳои шаҳри Душанбе имсол арзиши маҳсулоти хӯрокворӣ боло рафт.
In the markets of (the city of) Dushanbe this year the cost of food products went up.
Арзиши сомон нисбат ба дулор арзон шуд.
The price of the somoni to the dollar went down (got cheaper).

Bonus:
synonym: нарх
Using a quick google search shows that нарх is a much more common word than арзиш.
Other words related to this one:
арзишманд: valuable
арзидан: to cost

маҳсулот

маҳсулот: produce

Ин завод чӣ гуна маҳсулот мебарояд?
What kind of produce does this factory produce?
Мо маҳсулотро аз Чин, Эрон, Туркия ва Самарқанд меорем.
We bring produce from China, Iran, Turkey and Samarkand.

Bonus:
Clues that this is an Arabic loan word: it starts with ма, it ends with от, and the three root consonants (ҳ с л) can be used to make another word with a similar meaning.
ҳосил – harvest, yield, product

миллӣ

миллӣ: national

Ман таомҳои миллиро дӯст медорам.
I love the national food.
27 июн дар Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон «Рӯзи Ваҳдати миллӣ» ҷашн гирифта мешавад.
On the 27th of June in the Republic of Tajikistan The Day of National Unity will be celebrated.

Bonus:
When you add “ро” or “и” or anything else to a word ending with ӣ, the ӣ is changed to an и.
Example: Суруди миллии Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон – The National Song of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Here is some info on National Unity Day – in English and in Tajik.

завод

завод: factory

Падарам дар заводи нонпазӣ кор мекунад.
My father works in the bread factory.
Зани бобоям дар заводи мебелбарорӣ кор мекард.
My grandfather’s wife used to work in the furniture factory.

Bonus:
Завод is a Russian loan word.
Synonyms are корхона and фабрика (also a Russian loan word).

дуруст

дуруст: right, true

Гапатон дуруст.
You’re right. (What you said is right.)
Ин шаҳодат дуруст аст.
This testimony is true.

Bonus:
Opposite of дуруст is нодуруст – wrong, false.
Дуруст is used in some compound words, e.g.
тандуруст: healthy
дурустрафтор: well-behaved

зиндагӣ кардан

зиндагӣ кардан: to live

Шумо дар куҷо зиндагӣ мекунед?
Where do you live?
Ӯ дар ҳавлие зиндагӣ мекард, ки боғчаи хубе дошт.
He lived in a (house with a) yard that had a nice little garden.

Bonus:
Synonyms: зистан, умр дидан
A little tip I learned recently. If you want to find out which of two words is more common just do a google search for them both and compare number of results. In this case I googled the same tense of these three verbs – “зиндагӣ карданд” 1460; “зистанд” 767; “умр диданд” 28.

чарх задан

чарх задан: to spin, to rotate, to circle

Замин дар гирди офтоб чарх мезанад.
The earth rotates around the sun.

Самолёт дар болои қишлоқ ду-се бор чарх заду поён фуромад.
The plane circled above the village two or three times and landed.


Bonus:
Synonyms: гирд гаштан, давр задан
Something else that spins – чархофалак. This word is used for all kinds of spinning rides found at amusement parks.

нимкура

нимкура: hemisphere

Фасли тобистон дар Нимкураи Шимолӣ аз 21 июн то 21 сентябр, дар Нимкураи Ҷанубӣ аз 21 декабр то 20 март давом мекунад.
Summer in the northern hemisphere lasts from 21st of June to 21st of September, and in the southern hemisphere from 21st of December to 20th of March.

Bonus:
ним (half) + кура (sphere) = нимкура
This word can also be used to refer to the left and right half of the brain – нимкураи чап and нимкураи рост.

тобистон

тобистон: summer

Тобистон баъд аз фасли баҳор ва пеш аз фасли тирамоҳ меояд.
Summer comes after spring and before autumn (fall).
Имсол тобистон хеле гарм мешавад.
This year summer will be very hot.

Bonus:
If you need to learn or practice words related to months and seasons you can check out this:
Memrise – Tajik Months and Seasons.
(You have to join Memrise, but it’s completely free.)
You can change this noun to an adjective by adding the letter а to get тобистона.
e.g. либоси тобистона – summer clothes

тавонистан

тавонистан: to be able

Шумо шино карда метавонед? Ҳа метавонам.
Сan you swim? Yes I can. (Are you able to swim. Yes, I am able.)
Ман метавонам ба шумо пул диҳам.
I can give you money. (I am able to give you money.)

Bonus:
The second sample sentence could also be written like this:
Ман ба шумо пул дода метавонам.
Colloquially, the letters ав are often dropped. So the first example would be:
Шумо шино карда метонед? Ҳа метонам.
From the same root, тавоно is an adjective that means “able”, and is sometimes translated as “powerful” or “capable”.