Word A Day


табиӣ: natural

Дар Тоҷикистон ғайр аз кӯлҳои табиӣ кӯлҳои сунъӣ низ мавҷуданд.
In Tajikistan, in addition to natural lakes there are also man-made lakes.
Нахҳои табииро аз зағир, пахта, ҷут, канаб, пашми ҳайвонот ва пилла тайёр мекунанд.
Natural fibers are prepared from flax, cotton, jute, hemp, animal hair and cocoons.

When a suffix is added to a word ending in ӣ, the ӣ is changed to и; the letter ӣ can’t occur in the middle of the word. See an example in the second sentence where the -ро is added to табиӣ – нахҳои табииро.

табият: nature

сарватҳои табиӣ: natural resources
офати табиӣ: natural disaster
гази табиӣ: natural gas


писар: son

Ӯ як писар ва чор духтар дошт.
He had one son and four daughters.
Вақте таваллуд кардани Элисобат фаро расид ва ӯ писаре зоид.
When the time came for Elizabeth to give birth, she gave birth to a son.

Notice in the first sentence that the word daughter, духтар, does not have a plural ending. In Tajik, if a noun follows a number, the noun does not take the plural ending.

Писар can also mean boy.

Some other family members:
модар: mother
падар: father
духтар: daughter
ака: older brother
додар: younger brother
апа: older sister
хоҳар: younger sister
модаркалон, бибӣ: grandmother
парадкалон, бобо: grandfather
набера: grandchild
тағо, амак: uncle
хола, амма: aunt


нимтире: hyphen

Аломати нимтире дар байни зарфҳои такрор гузошта мешавад: оҳиста-оҳиста, тез-тез.
A hyphen is placed between repeating adverbs: slowly-slowly, quickly-quickly.
Сифатҳое, ки аз шумораву исм бо пасвандҳои -а, -ӣ (-гӣ) сохта шудаанд: санги 50-грамӣ, вазни 32-килоӣ ва ғ. бо нимтире навишта мешаванд.
Adjectives that are composed of a number and a noun with the suffix -а, -ӣ, (гӣ)- are written with a hyphen: 50-gram stone, 32-kilogram weight etc.

Adjectives are repeated in Tajik for emphasis. A better way to translate to English is to use “very”.
оҳиста-оҳиста: very slowly
тез-тез: very quickly

The Russian word for hyphen, дефис, is still used frequently in Tajikistan.

More punctuation words –
нуқта: period, full stop
вергул: comma
дунуқта: colon
нуқтавергул: semi-colon
аломати савол: question mark
аломати хитоб: exclamation point, exclamation mark
тире: dash
қавсҳо: parentheses, round brackets
нохунак: quotation mark, inverted comma


ба фикри

ба фикри: according to

Ба фикри падарам имсол ҳавои тирамоҳ мисли тобистон гарм мешавад.
According to my father, this year the autumn weather will be hot like summer.
Ба фикри шумо ӯ дар куҷо аст?
Where do you think he is?

Synonym: ба хаёли

фикр: thought, idea
фикр кардан: to think

ба фикри ман: according to me, in my opinion, I think that…
ба фикри вай: according to him, in his opinion, he thinks that…


тез: sharp

Муш бо дандончаҳои тезаш бандро зуд бурид.
The mouse quickly cut the cord with its sharp little teeth.
Қайчӣ асбоби тези дӯзандагӣ буда, аз замонҳои қадим маълум аст.
Scissors are a sharp sewing tool that have been around since ancient times.

Antonym: кунд (blunt)

Alternate meanings –
тез: quickly (adv.), fast (adj.)
тез: spicy

Корди тез тез мебурад. A sharp knife cuts quickly.

зеҳни тез: sharp mind
кунҷи тез: sharp corner
тезчангол: sharp-clawed

There are a lot of compound words that use тез, using all three definitions of тез. Reading through lists of words like that is a great way to increase your vocabulary. You can see a list of compound words with тез in this Tajik dictionary, page 341.


диққатҷалбкунанда: captivating, fascinating

Aфсонахонӣ барои кӯдакон хеле шавқовар ва диққатҷалбкунанда аст. 
Storytelling for children is very interesting and fascinating.
Ибораҳои рекламавӣ бояд диққатҷалбкунанда бошанд ва таъиноти асосии молро дар бар гиранд.
Advertising phrases should be captivating and contain the main purpose of the product.

Synonyms: шавқовар, ҷозибадор, дилкаш

диққат: attention
ҷалб кардан: to attract; to pull towards; to draw in

Challenge: How many times can you use this word in your conversations today? One? Five? More?


нӯл: beak

Бумҳо нӯли қатшуда ва чанголҳои тез доранд.
Owls have curved beaks and sharp claws.
Шакл ва андозаи нӯлҳои парандагон гуногун мешавад ва ба тарзи хӯрокхӯрии онҳо вобаста мебошад
The shape and size of birds’ beaks are varied and related to the way they eat their food.

нӯлборик: thin-beaked
нӯлдароз: long-beaked
нӯлдор: beaked, having a beak
нӯл задан: to peck

вайрон шудан

вайрон шудан: to become damaged, to become spoiled

Бодиринги тару тоза тез вайрон мешавад.
Fresh cucumbers quickly spoil.
Дар натиҷаи заминҷунбӣ садҳо хонаву бино вайрон шуданд.
As a result of the earthquake hundreds of homes and buildings were damaged.
Автобуси мусофиркашон дар роҳ ба Душанбе вайрон шуд.
The passenger bus broke down on the road to Dushanbe.

Synonym: хароб шудан

вайрон шудани муносибати байни ду кас: a breakdown of relationship between two people

вайроншуда: broken, spoiled, damaged (adj.)
вайроннашаванда: indestructible, unbreakable

вайрон кардан: to break, to damaged


тез: quickly

Пашшаи хонагӣ хеле тез парвоз карда метавонад.
A house fly can fly very quickly.
Баъд аз пухтан тухмро ба оби хунук меандозанд, то ин ки пусташ тез ҷудо шавад.
After cooking, eggs are put in cold water so that the shell can be quickly separated.
Солҳо тез мегузаранд.
The years pass quickly.

Synonyms: зуд, бошитоб

In these sample sentences, тез is used as an adverb, but it can also be an adjective.
ҳавопаймои тез: fast aeroplane

The word тез can also mean “sharp”, and “spicy”.

тез калон шудан: to grow up quickly
тез хашмгин шудан: to quickly become angry

Тез is also used in a lot of compound words, like тезпарвоз (fast-flying).


гумшуда: lost

Ин писарам гумшуда буду ёфт шуд.
This son of mine was lost and he was found.
Бо ман шодӣ кунед, ки гӯсфанди гумшудаи худро ёфтам.
Rejoice with me that I found my lost sheep.

гум шудан: to be lost

The past participle is formed by adding the suffix -а to the past tense verb stem, for example:
рафт: рафта
шуд: шуда
дид: дида

The past participle can function as an adjective. Some examples:
дари гушода: open door
соли гузашта: last year

With compound verbs, the two words are combined, and then the suffix -a is added, for example:
ғиҷим шудан: to get wrinkled
ғиҷимшуда: wrinkled (adj.)
қоқ шудан: to get dry
қоқшуда: dried (adj.)
монда шудан: to be tired
мондашуда: tired (adj.)