Word A Day

ҳеч чиз

ҳеч чиз: nothing

Ҳеҷ кас ва ҳеҷ чиз фаромӯш намешавад!
Nobody and nothing will be forgotton!
Наметарасам аз ҳеҷ чиз.
I am scared of nothing.

Bonus:
Tajik is a language that uses double negatives, so when using ҳеҷ чиз you also have to put the negative prefix на on the verb. When translating to English, then, we can translate two ways deciding which word in English will take the negative. So the second sample sentence can be translated “I am scared of nothing” or “I am not scared of anything”.
Forgetting to use the double negative is a common mistake for English speakers who are learning Tajik. Tajiks who are beginning to learn English will also make the same mistake which is why they might say something like, “I am not scared of nothing”.

ҷавоб додан

ҷавоб додан: to answer

Шумо пурсед, ман ҷавоб медиҳам.
You ask, I will answer.
Вай ба ман ҷавоб надод.
He didn’t answer me.
Ҷавоб диҳед!
Answer!

Bonus:
ҷавоб: an answer
додан: to give
ҷавоб додан: to give an answer
Synonyms: посух додан
Ҷавоб додан can also mean to release or let go. It can be used to let somebody leave work at the end of the day or to leave hospital.

волидайн

волидайн: parents

Таълиму тарбияи фарзанд вазифаи асосии волидайн аст.
Teaching and raising a child is the main job of parents.
Аксарияти волидайн ба рафтору кирдори фарзанди худ аҳамияти ҷиддӣ намедиҳанд.
Most parents don’t pay serious attention to the behaviour of their own child.

Bonus:
Notice the same three root consonants (в, л, д) as in таваллуд (birth).
It is more common when speaking to say модару падар (mother and father) than it is to say волидайн.

такя кардан

такя кардан: to lean

Дар вақти таом хӯрдан такя накун ва ё дароз накаш.
While eating a meal, don’t lean or lie down.
Аврупо дигар наметавонад ба Амрико ва Бритониё такя кунад.
Europe can no longer lean on America and Great Britain.

Bonus:
Такя кардан had be used to mean actually leaning on something (like a wall or a desk) or figuratively leaning on something (like a person or one’s own strength). Examples of both are given. We could also translate the latter as “to rely on”.

хизмат

хизмат: service

Хизмат ба Ватан қарзи ҳар ҷавонмард аст.
Service to the homeland is the duty of every young man.
Ҳангоме ки рӯзҳои хизматаш ба анҷом расиданд, ба хонаи худ рафт.
When the days of his service came to an end, he went to his home.

Bonus:
Alternative spelling: хидмат
Somebody who is doing service is хизматгор or хидматгор.
хизмати ҳарбӣ: military service

рафтан

рафтан: to go

Дигар ба он ҷо нарав!
Don’t go there again!
Меравам, то барои шумо ҷой тайёр кунам.
I will go to prepare a place for you.

Bonus:
Need practice with the verb рафтан? Try this Substitution Drill with рафтан.
Рафтан is also used as a helper verb. Here are some examples –
хоб рафтан: to sleep
аз даст рафтан: to lose
аз ёд рафтан: to forget
хун рафтан: to bleed

ҷинояткор

ҷинояткор: criminal

Ҷинояткор бо мақсади дуздӣ ба бонк даромад.
The criminal entered the bank with the intention of theft.
Агар симкортатро ҷинояткор истифода кунад, ту ҳам ҷинояткорӣ.
If a criminal uses your SIM card, you are also a criminal.

Bonus:
When you add the suffix кор to a noun, you produce another noun that is person.
In this case, ҷиноят means crime. The person that does the crime is ҷинояткор.
For more examples of adding the suffix кор to a noun to make another noun that is a person, see this pdf: Expand Your Vocabulary: Suffixes.

доштан

доштан: to have

Ҳар як шабонарӯз бисту чор соат дорад.
Every day has twenty-four hours.
Онҳо дар дасташон ҳеҷ чиз надоштанд.
They didn’t have anything in their hands.

Bonus:
Доштан can also be a helper verb, for example:
гап доштан – to have something to say;
нигоҳ доштан – to keep, to raise, as in гов нигоҳ доштан (to raise cattle)

сафар

сафар: journey, trip

Мо аз сафар дер меоем.
We will come back late from the journey.
Шунидем, ки дар сафари хориҷӣ будед.
We heard that you were on a foreign trip.

Bonus:
ҳамсафар – travelling companion
сафар кардан – to go on a journey
Synonym: мусофират
Notice the same root consonants in сафар and in мусофират. Also in мусофир (traveler).