Word A Day

гӯсфанд

гӯсфанд: sheep

Мурод ба ҷустуҷӯи гӯсфандон даромад.
Murod went out to look for his sheep.
Моҳи декабр 1 кило гӯшти гов 30 ва 1 кило гӯшти гӯсфанд 32 сомонӣ арзиш дошт.
In December 1 kilo of beef cost 30 Somoni and 1 kilo of mutton cost 32 Somoni.


Bonus:
In speech, to make something plural the suffix -ҳо is usually added , but in written Tajik for animate objects (living things) the suffix -он is usually used.
In English we have words for different kinds of meat, like beef and mutton; but in Tajik they just say cow meat and sheep meat.

хоболуд

хоболуд: sleepy, tired

Ва омада, боз онҳоро хуфта ёфт, зеро чашмонашон хоболуд буд.
And coming, he found them asleep again, because their eyes were tired.
Онҳо сахт хоболуд буданд.
They were very sleepy.


Bonus:
хоболуд = хоб + олуд.

Some other words with олуд suffix – хунолуд: bloody, ғазаболуд: angry, хоколуд: dirty, чанголуд: dusty. If you can think of others please share them in the comments.

рӯз

рӯз: day

Ҳафта аз ҳафт рӯз иборат аст.
A week is made up of seven days.
Сагам рӯз то рӯз калон мешуд.
My dog got bigger day by day.
Худи ҳамон рӯз баъди нишастани офтоб ману Зебӣ ба деҳаи мо расида омадем.
That very day after sunset Zebi and I arrived at our village.


Bonus:
How about a song to listen to or download? Ин аст рӯзе – This is the day.

шавқовар

шавқовар: interesting

Ӯ одами шавқовар ва боақл аст.
He is an interesting and intelligent man.
Дарсҳои иловагии мактаб он қадар шавқовар нестанд ва аксари ҳамсинфонам дар онҳо ширкат намекунанд.
The extra school lessons are not that interesting and most of my classmates don’t participate in them.


Bonus:
The adjective шавқовар is made up of two parts – шавқ: (interest, a noun) and suffix -овар (from the verb овардан – to bring).
There are many adjectives with the suffix -овар. Here are a few examples: хандаовар, шодиовар, шармовар, диловар.

қадимтарин

қадимтарин: oldest

Забони тоҷикӣ яке аз забонҳои қадимтарини Осиёи Миёна мебошад.
Tajik is one of the oldest languages in Central Asia.
Наврӯз яке аз қадимтарин идҳои тоҷикон ба шумор меравад.
Navruz is (counted as) one of the Tajik people’s oldest holidays.


Bonus: 
қадим – old; қадимтар – older; қадимтарин – oldest
Қадим can also mean “ancient”, so қадимтарин is “the most ancient”. But it is also used for something not so old as in this article about the oldest cinema in Dushanbe, which is about 60 years old.

саёҳат

саёҳат: trip, journey

Агар ҳаво нағз шавад, мо ба саёҳат меравем.
If the weather is nice we will go on a trip.
Бачаҳо хурсанд буданд, ки муаллим онҳоро ба саёҳат мебарад.
The children were happy that the teacher would take them on a trip.


Bonus:
The suffix -чӣ can be added to a noun to form a new noun that is a type of person. Саёҳатчӣ is therefore a traveler or tourist.
Adding suffixes is a great way to increase your vocabulary. Check out lots more examples on this pdf: Expand Your Vocabulary – Suffixes.

кошки

кошки: if only

Кошки дирӯз ҳамин хел мешуд.
If only yesterday had been like this.
Кошки ин сухан аз даҳонаш намебаромад!
If only those words hadn’t come out of his mouth!
Кошки медонистам.
I wish I had known.


Bonus: 
Кошки could also be translated as “I wish…” or “O that…”
Кошки can also be a response to something that sounds too good to be true. For example, somebody says that they have heard that there will be no snow this winter. You reply – “Кошки”, “If only”.

кӯҳсор

кӯҳсор: mountains

Дар кӯҳсор ҳайвоноти ваҳшӣ: гург, рӯбоҳ, хирс ва бабрҳо мешаванд.
In the mountains are wild animals: wolves, foxes, bears and tigers.
Мо имрӯз ба сайри кӯҳсор меравем.
Today we are going for a walk in the mountains.


Bonus: 
Adding the suffix -зор, -сор, -истон to a noun forms a noun for a place. Кӯҳ is mountain, so кӯҳсор is “the place of mountains” which could also be translated as “mountainous region”, “highlands”, or simply “mountains”.
Кӯҳистон is a synonym for кӯҳсор. It would be interesting to find out if they have slightly different meanings or if they are completely interchangeable.

ҷустуҷӯ кардан

ҷустуҷӯ кардан: to search

Чаро шумо зиндаро дар миёни мурдагон ҷустуҷӯ мекунед?
Why do you search for the living among the dead.


Bonus: 
Tajik websites like Asia-Plus use the word ҷустуҷӯ in the search box to search their site.
Another common usage of the word ҷустуҷӯ is in оперативӣ – ҷустуҷӯӣ, or search operation, as in a search that might be conducted by the Department of Customs.